Comprehensive Mapping of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fruits

Ghaste, Manoj Shahaji (2015) Comprehensive Mapping of Volatile Organic Compounds in Fruits. PhD thesis, University of Trento, Fondazione Edmund Mach, University of North Texas.

PDF - Doctoral Thesis


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the key aroma producers in fruits and sensory quality of fruits is widely determined by qualitative and quantitative composition of VOCs. The aroma of grape is a complex of hundreds of VOCs belonging to different chemical classes like alcohols, esters, acids, terpenes, aldehydes, furanones, pyrazines, isoprenoids and many more. VOCs play important role as they determine the flavor of grapes and wine made from it. The objective of this thesis is to study of VOCs through development of different mass spectrometry based analytical methodologies and its applications for the comprehensive investigation and construction of database of the VOCs in grapes. First part of the study was dedicated to generation of the comprehensive database of grape VOCs through the screening of multiple grape varieties (n=124) representing different species, color and origin. The experiment was carried out using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based approach and according to metabolomics protocols. A customized dataset of reference standards (>350) was generated and, an automated pipeline for data analysis was created in collaboration with data management group of the institute. The results showed annotation of “level 1”of 117 VOCs in grape. The established database in this experiment will represent the significant portion of the future Grape Metabolome database. The second part of the study was dedicated to study the differential behavior of volatile organic compounds and their glycosylated precursors qualitatively and semi quantitatively. Volatile secondary metabolites also exist in the form of nonvolatile and odorless glycosylated precursors in grape and studies have confirmed that concentration of these precursors can be much higher than its free counterparts. The elevated concentrations of volatiles in glycosylated forms can significantly affect the wine aroma because of possible chemical modifications throughout the process of fermentation and wine ageing. In addition, the investigation of the biosynthesis and accumulation of VOCs in the fruit tissues requires the consideration of both the free and bound forms. To study the phenomenon an experiment was carried using solid phase extraction (SPE) of the free and glycosylated precursors; with enzymatic hydrolysis aglycone part of the precursors was released followed by subsequent GC-MS analysis. Over 10 different selected grape varieties were analyzed. Sixty-six significant different aroma compounds in grapes (pre and post hydrolysis) were identified. Identification was done based on several parameters like retention time, retention index and MS spectral database. The multivariate statistical analysis by two-way hierarchical clustering with heat map visualization showed distribution of the compounds within different varieties before and after hydrolysis. In the third part of the study, we performed experiments dedicated to training and applications of atmospheric pressure gas chromatography mass spectrometry (APGC-MS). The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, under the supervision of Prof. Vladimir Shulaev. We have established the metabolomics protocol for the analysis of fruit volatiles using APGC-MS with an optimized GC and MS conditions and created novel library of the fruit volatile compounds using APGC-MS system. Six different grape varieties were analyzed as a case study and experimental results showed APGC-MS as a valuable solution for metabolomics analysis. The data processing and statistical evaluation was done using XCMS and progenesis QI© software. Moreover, observations based on injections of pure reference standards showed high abundance of molecular ions with minimal fragmentation at low collision energy that is typically missing in traditional vacuum source GC-MS. Moreover, the use of elevated collision energy data resulted in a spectrum similar to the traditional EI data.

Item Type:Doctoral Thesis (PhD)
Doctoral School:Biomolecular Sciences
PhD Cycle:27
Subjects:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche
Area 03 - Scienze chimiche > CHIM/01 CHIMICA ANALITICA
Uncontrolled Keywords:Volatile Aroma Compounds, Grapes, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Metabolomics
Funders:Fondazione Edmund Mach
Repository Staff approval on:20 Jul 2015 11:13

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