Numerical and Experimental Study on the Friction of Complex Surfaces

Berardo, Alice (2018) Numerical and Experimental Study on the Friction of Complex Surfaces. PhD thesis, University of Trento.

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Whenever two bodies are in contact due to a normal load and one is sliding against the other, a tangential force arises, as opposed to the motion. This force is called friction force and involves different mechanisms, such as asperity interactions, energy dissipation, chemical and physical alterations of the surface topography and wear. The friction coefficient is defined as the ratio between the friction force and the applied normal load. Despite this apparently simple definition, friction appears to be a very complex phenomenon, which also involves several aspects at both the micro- and nano-scale, including adhesion and phase transformation. Moreover, it plays a key role in a variety of systems, and must be either enhanced (e.g. for locomotion) or minimized (e.g. in bearings), depending on the application. Considering friction as a multiscale problem, an analytical model has been proposed, starting from the literature, to describe friction in the presence of anisotropy, adhesion and wear between surfaces with hierarchical structures, e.g. self-similar. This model has been implemented in a MATLAB code for the design of the tribological properties of hierarchical surfaces and has been applied to study the ice friction, comparing analytical predictions with experimental tests. Furthermore, particular isotropic or anisotropic surface morphologies (e.g., microholes of different shapes and sizes) has been investigated for their influence to the static and dynamic friction coefficients with respect to a flat counterpart. In particular, it has been proved that the presence of grooves on surfaces could decrease the friction coefficients and thus reduce wear and energy dissipation. Experimental tests were performed with a setup realized ad hoc and the results were compared with full numerical simulations. If patterned surfaces showed that they can reduce sliding friction, other applications could require an increase in energy dissipation, e.g. to enhance the toughness of microfibers. Specifically, the applied method consists of introducing sliding frictional elements (sliding knots) in biological (silkworm silk, natural or degummed) and synthetic fibres, reproducing the concept of molecules, where the sacrificial bonds provide higher toughness to the molecular backbone, with a hidden length, which occurs after their breakage. A variety of slip knot topologies with different unfastening mechanisms have been investigated, including even complex knots usually adopted in the textile industry. The knots were made by manipulation of fibres with tweezers and the resulting knotted fibres were characterized through nanotensile tests to obtain their stress-strain curve until failure. The presence of sliding knots strongly increases the dissipated energy per unit mass, without compromising the structural integrity of the fibre itself.

Item Type:Doctoral Thesis (PhD)
Doctoral School:Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering
PhD Cycle:29
Subjects:Area 08 - Ingegneria civile e Architettura > ICAR/08 SCIENZA DELLE COSTRUZIONI
Repository Staff approval on:21 Jun 2018 09:47

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